Kinetica has native support for a variety of expressions, which are used as inputs while querying data (for supported SQL expressions, see SQL Support ). These native expressions can involve one or more constants (both numeric and string) and table columns; however, expressions cannot be applied to storeonly columns. The expressions follow certain constraints based on where they are used, but all the expressions should follow the basic guidelines outlined below:
Important
Use parentheses liberally to ensure correct orderofoperations.
Types  Details 

String  String constants must be enclosed in single quotes or double quotes, e.g.,

Numerical  Numerical constants can be expressed as:

Date/Time  Supported date formats have optional leading zeros for months & days, while datetime optionally supports UTC format. Examples of each date/time data type:

Important
When these operators are applied to numeric columns, they will
interpret nonzero values as true and zero values as false,
returning 1
for true and 0
for false.
Types  Details  

Bitwise  &  << >> ~ ^ 

Comparison 


Logical 


Mathematical  +  * / 
Function  Description  

CASE(expr, {<matches>}, {<values>}, value_if_no_match) 
Evaluates Note A null cannot be used for either a match or value, but
Examples:


IF(expr, value_if_true, value_if_false) 
Evaluates

For the CAST()
and CONVERT()
functions, valid destination types are:
Numeric  Text  Date/Time  Geometry 





Function  Description  

CAST(original value, destination type) 
Returns the equivalent of original value converted to the destination type .
Useful for converting strings to numbers and numbers to strings 

CHAR(int) 
Returns the character associated with the ASCII code in int 

CHAR1(charN) 
Converts the given charN to char1 type 

CHAR2(charN) 
Converts the given charN to char2 type 

CHAR4(charN) 
Converts the given charN to char4 type 

CHAR8(charN) 
Converts the given charN to char8 type 

CHAR16(charN) 
Converts the given charN to char16 type 

CHAR32(charN) 
Converts the given charN to char32 type 

CHAR64(charN) 
Converts the given charN to char64 type 

CHAR128(charN) 
Converts the given charN to char128 type 

CHAR256(charN) 
Converts the given charN to char256 type 

CONVERT(original value, destination type, style) 
Returns the equivalent of Valid style codes include:
Examples:


DATE(expr) 
Converts expr to date (YYYYMMDD ) format 

DATETIME(expr) 
Converts expr to datetime (YYYYMMDD HH24:MI:SS.mmm ) format 

STRING(expr) 
Converts expr to a string format appropriate for the expr type 

TIME(expr) 
Converts expr to time (HH:MI:SS.mmm ) format 

TIMESTAMP(expr) 
Converts expr to the number of milliseconds since the epoch 

TO_CHAR(expr, format) 
Converts the given date/time The returned string will be truncated at 32 characters. Valid format codes include:
Example:

This section comprises the following functions:
Note
Integer fields are assumed to be seconds since the epoch; long/timestamp fields are assumed to be milliseconds since the epoch.
Function  Description  

CURRENT_DATE() 
Returns the date as YYYYMMDD 

CURRENT_DATETIME() 
Returns the date & time as YYYYMMDD HH24:MI:SS.mmm 

CURRENT_TIME() 
Returns the time as HH24:MI:SS.mmm 

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP() 
Returns the date & time as the number of milliseconds since the epoch  
DATEADD(unit, amount, expr) 
Alias for TIMESTAMPADD(unit, amount, expr) 

DATEDIFF(expr_begin, expr_end) 
Determines the difference between two dates, irrespective of time
component, as the number of days when expr_begin is
subtracted from expr_end ; returns a negative number of days
if expr_begin occurs after expr_end 

DAY(expr) 
Alias for DAYOFMONTH(expr) 

DAYNAME(expr) 
Extracts the day of the week from expr and converts it to the corresponding day name
[Sunday  Saturday ] 

DAYOFMONTH(expr) 
Extracts the day of the month from expr [1  31 ] 

DAYOFWEEK(expr) 
Extracts the day of the week from


DAY_OF_WEEK(expr) 
Alias for DAYOFWEEK(expr) 

DAYOFYEAR(expr) 
Extracts the day of the year from expr [1  366 ] 

DAY_OF_YEAR(expr) 
Alias for DAYOFYEAR(expr) 

HOUR(expr) 
Extracts the hour of the day from expr [0  23 ] 

LAST_DAY(expr) 
Returns the date of the last day of the month in the given expr 

MINUTE(expr) 
Extracts the minute of the day from expr [0  59 ] 

MONTH(expr) 
Extracts the month of the year from expr [1  12 ] 

MONTHNAME(expr) 
Extracts the month of the year from expr and converts it to the corresponding month
name [ January  December ] 

MSEC(expr) 
Extracts the millisecond of the second from expr [0  999 ] 

NEXT_DAY(date, expr) 
Returns the date of the next day of the week, provided as a day name in Some examples, given that 20001010 is a Tuesday:


NOW() 
Alias for CURRENT_DATETIME() 

QUARTER(expr) 
Extracts the quarter of the year from


SEC(expr) 
Alias for SECOND(expr) 

SECOND(expr) 
Extracts the seconds of the minute from expr [ 0  59 ] 

TIMEBOUNDARYDIFF(unit, begin, end) 
Calculates the difference between two date/time expressions, returning the result as an
integral difference in the units specified; more precisely, how many whole date/time
intervals of type For example, if Note This is symmetric with Examples:
Important This function does not work with string literal date stamps
(e.g., 

TIMESTAMPADD(unit, amount, expr) 
Adds the positive or negative integral The following date/time intervals are supported for
Note Any of these Examples:
Note To cast the result to a string appropriate for the date/time type
(e.g., 

TIMESTAMPDIFF(unit, begin, end) 
Calculates the difference between two date/time expressions, returning the result as an
integral difference in the units specified; more precisely, how many whole date/time
intervals of type Unlike Note This is not symmetric with Examples:
Important This function does not work with string literal date stamps
(e.g., 

WEEK(expr) 
Extracts the week of the year from expr [1  54 ]; each full week starts on
Sunday (A 1 is returned for the week containing Jan 1st) 

YEAR(expr) 
Extracts the year from expr ; 4digit year, A.D. 
Function  Description  

DATE_TO_EPOCH_MSECS(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, msec) 
Converts the full date to the number of milliseconds since the epoch; negative values are accepted Example:


DATE_TO_EPOCH_SECS(year, month, day, hour, min, sec) 
Converts the full date to the number of seconds since the epoch; negative values are accepted Example:


MSECS_SINCE_EPOCH(timestamp) 
Converts the timestamp to the number of milliseconds since the epoch Example:


TIMESTAMP_FROM_DATE_TIME(date, time) 
Converts the given date and time to a composite timestamp in milliseconds since the epoch Example:


WEEK_TO_EPOCH_MSECS(year, week_number) 
Converts the year and week number to the number of milliseconds since the epoch; negative values are accepted Example:


WEEK_TO_EPOCH_SECS(year, week_number) 
Converts the year and week number to the number of seconds since the epoch. Negative values are accepted. Each new week begins Sunday at midnight. Example:

Errors will only be successfully caught if the expressions are floatingpoint
types (i.e. double
and float
).
Function  Description  

IFERROR(expr, val) 
Alias for IF_ERROR(expr, val) 

IFINF(expr, val) 
Alias for IF_INF(expr, val) 

IFINFINITY(expr, val) 
Alias for IF_INF(expr, val) 

IFNAN(expr, val) 
Alias for IF_NAN(expr, val) 

IF_ERROR(expr, val) 
Evaluates the given Tip Conceptually, this function is the same as Example:


IF_INF(expr, val) 
Evaluates the given Example:


IF_INFINITY(expr, val) 
Alias for IF_INF(expr, val) 

IF_NAN(expr, val) 
Evaluates the given Example:

Tip
ST_ISVALID
to determine if a geometry object is valid. The
functions below work best with valid geometry objects.REMOVE_NULLABLE
function to
remove any nullable
column types that could result from calculating a
derived column (e.g., as in Projections) using one of the
functions below.The functions below all compare x
and y
coordinates to geometry objects
(or vice versa), thus increasing their performance in queries. Each of these
functions have a geometrytogeometry version listed in the next section.
Function  Description 

STXY_CONTAINS(geom, x, y) 
Returns 1 (true) if geom contains the x and y coordinate, e.g. lies in the interior
of geom . The coordinate cannot be on the boundary and also be contained because geom does not
contain its boundary 
STXY_CONTAINSPROPERLY(geom, x, y) 
Returns 1 (true) if the x and y coordinate intersects the interior of geom but not
the boundary (or exterior) because geom does not contain its boundary but does contain itself 
STXY_COVEREDBY(x, y, geom) 
Returns 1 (true) if the x and y coordinate is covered by geom 
STXY_COVERS(geom, x, y) 
Returns 1 (true) if geom covers the x and y coordinate 
STXY_DISJOINT(x, y, geom) 
Returns 1 (true) if the given x and y coordinate and the geometry geom do not
spatially intersect. 
STXY_DISTANCE(x, y, geom[, solution]) 
Calculates the minimum distance between the given
Note: If the 
STXY_DWITHIN(x, y, geom, distance[, solution]) 
Returns

STXY_ENVDWITHIN(x, y, geom, distance[, solution]) 
Returns

STXY_ENVINTERSECTS(x, y, geom) 
Returns 1 (true) if the bounding box of the given geometry geom intersects the x and
y coordinate. 
STXY_INTERSECTION(x, y, geom) 
Returns the shared portion between the x and y coordinate and the given geometry geom ,
i.e. the point itself. 
STXY_INTERSECTS(x, y, geom) 
Returns 1 (true) if the x and y coordinate and geom intersect in 2D. 
STXY_TOUCHES(x, y, geom) 
Returns 1 (true) if the x and y coordinate and geometry geom have at least one point
in common but their interiors do not intersect. If geom is a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, a 0 is
returned regardless if the point and geometry touch 
STXY_WITHIN(x, y, geom) 
Returns 1 (true) if the x and y coordinate is completely inside the geom geometry
i.e., not on the boundary 
Function  Description 

DIST(x1, y1, x2, y2) 
Computes the Euclidean distance (in degrees), i.e. SQRT( (x1x2)*(x1x2) + (y1y2)*(y1y2) ) . 
GEODIST(lon1, lat1, lon2, lat2) 
Computes the geographic greatcircle distance (in meters) between two lat/lon points. 
GEOHASH_DECODE_LATITUDE(geohash) 
Decodes a given geohash and returns the latitude value for the given hash string. Supports a
maximum geohash character length of 16. 
GEOHASH_DECODE_LONGITUDE(geohash) 
Decodes a given geohash and returns the longitude value for the given hash string. Supports a
maximum geohash character length of 16. 
GEOHASH_ENCODE(lat, lon, precision) 
Encodes a given coordinate pair and returns a hash string with a given precision . 
ST_ADDPOINT(linestring, point, position) 
Adds a the given point geometry to the given linestring geometry at the specified
position , which is a 0based index. 
ST_ALMOSTEQUALS(geom1, geom2, decimal) 
Returns 1 (true) if given geometries, geom1 and geom2 , are almost spatially equal within
the given amount of decimal scale. Note that geometries will still be considered equal if the
decimal scale for the geometries is within a half order of magnitude of each other, e.g, if
decimal is set to 2, then POINT(63.4 123.45) and POINT(63.4 123.454) are equal, but
POINT(63.4 123.45) and POINT(63.4 123.459) are not equal. The geometry types must match to be
considered equal. 
ST_AREA(geom[, solution]) 
Returns the area of the given geometry

ST_AZIMUTH(geom1, geom2) 
Returns the azimuth in radians defined by the segment between two POINTs, geom1 and geom2 .
Returns a null if the input geometry type is MULTIPOINT, (MULTI)LINESTRING, or (MULTI)POLYGON. 
ST_BOUNDARY(geom) 
Returns the closure of the combinatorial boundary of a given geometry geom . Returns an empty
geometry if geom is an empty geometry. Returns a null if geom is a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION 
ST_BOUNDINGDIAGONAL(geom) 
Returns the diagonal of the given geometry's (geom ) bounding box. 
ST_BUFFER(geom, radius[, style[, solution]]) 
Returns a geometry that represents all points whose distance from the given geometry Available
Available
Tip To create a 5meter buffer around 
ST_CENTROID(geom) 
Calculates the center of the given geometry geom as a POINT. For (MULTI)POINTs, the center is
calculated as the average of the input coordinates. For (MULTI)LINESTRINGs, the center is calculated
as the weighted length of each given LINESTRING. For (MULTI)POLYGONs, the center is calculated as
the weighted area of each given POLYGON. If geom is an empty geometry, an empty
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION is returned 
ST_CLIP(geom1, geom2) 
Returns the geometry shared between given geometries geom1 and geom2 
ST_CLOSESTPOINT(geom1, geom2[, solution]) 
Calculates the 2D

ST_COLLECT(geom1, geom2) 
Returns a MULTI* or GEOMETRYCOLLECTION comprising geom1 and geom2 . If geom1 and geom2
are the same, singular geometry type, a MULTI* is returned, e.g., if geom1 and geom2 are both
POINTs (empty or no), a MULTIPOINT is returned. If geom1 and geom2 are neither the same type
nor singular geometries, a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION is returned. 
ST_COLLECTIONEXTRACT(collection, type) 
Returns only the specified

ST_COLLECTIONHOMOGENIZE(collection) 
Returns the simplest form of the given collection , e.g., a collection with a single POINT will
be returned as POINT(x y) , and a collection with multiple individual points will be returned as a
MULTIPOINT. 
ST_CONCAVEHULL(geom, target_percent[, allow_holes]) 
Returns a potentially concave geometry that encloses all geometries found in the given geom set.
Use target_percent (values between 0 and 1) to determine the percent of area of a convex hull the
concave hull will attempt to fill; 1 will return the same geometry as an ST_CONVEXHULL
operation. Set allow_holes to 1 (true) to allow holes in the resulting geometry; default
value is 0 (false). Note that allow_holes is independent of the area of target_percent . 
ST_CONTAINS(geom1, geom2) 
Returns 1 (true) if no points of geom2 lie in the exterior of geom1 and at least one
point of geom2 lies in the interior of geom1 . Note that geom1 does not contain its
boundary but does contain itself. 
ST_CONTAINSPROPERLY(geom1, geom2) 
Returns 1 (true) if geom2 intersects the interior of geom1 but not the boundary
(or exterior). Note that geom1 does not contain its boundary but does contain itself. 
ST_CONVEXHULL(geom) 
Returns the minimum convex geometry that encloses all geometries in the given geom set. 
ST_COORDDIM(geom) 
Returns the coordinate dimension of the given geom , e.g., a geometry with x , y , and z
coordinates would return 3 . 
ST_COVEREDBY(geom1, geom2) 
Returns 1 (true) if no point in geom1 is outside geom2 . 
ST_COVERS(geom1, geom2) 
Returns 1 (true) if no point in geom2 is outside geom1 . 
ST_CROSSES(geom1, geom2) 
Returns 1 (true) if the given geometries, geom1 and geom2 , spatially cross, meaning some
but not all interior points in common. If geom1 and/or geom2 are a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, a
0 is returned regardless if the two geometries cross 
ST_DIFFERENCE(geom1, geom2) 
Returns a geometry that represents the part of geom1 that does not intersect with geom2 . 
ST_DIMENSION(geom) 
Returns the dimension of the given geometry geom , which is less than or equal to the coordinate
dimension. If geom is a single geometry, a 0 is for POINT , a 1 is for LINESTRING ,
and a 2 is for POLYGON . If geom is a collection, it will return the largest dimension from
the collection. If geom is empty, 0 is returned. 
ST_DISJOINT(geom1, geom2) 
Returns 1 (true) if the given geometries, geom1 and geom2 , do not spatially intersect. 
ST_DISTANCE(geom1, geom2[, solution]) 
Calculates the minimum distance between the given geometries,
Note: If 
ST_DISTANCEPOINTS(x1, y1, x2, y2[, solution]) 
Calculates the minimum distance between the given points,

ST_DFULLYWITHIN(geom1, geom2, distance[, solution]) 
Returns

ST_DWITHIN(geom1, geom2, distance[, solution]) 
Returns

ST_ELLIPSE(centerx, centery, height, width) 
Returns an ellipse using the following values:

ST_ENDPOINT(geom) 
Returns the last point of the given geom as a POINT if it's a LINESTRING. If geom is not a
a LINESTRING, null is returned. 
ST_ENVDWITHIN(geom1, geom2, distance[, solution]) 
Returns

ST_ENVELOPE(geom) 
Returns the bounding box of a given geometry geom . 
ST_ENVINTERSECTS(geom1, geom2) 
Returns 1 (true) if the bounding box of the given geometries, geom1 and geom2 , intersect. 
ST_EQUALS(geom1, geom2) 
Returns 1 (true) if the given geometries, geom1 and geom2 , are spatially equal. Note that
order does not matter. 
ST_EQUALSEXACT(geom1, geom2, tolerance) 
Returns 1 (true) if the given geometries, geom1 and geom2 , are almost spatially equal
within some given tolerance . If the values within the given geometries are within the
tolerance value of each other, they're considered equal, e.g., if tolerance is 2,
POINT(1 1) and POINT(1 3) are considered equal, but POINT(1 1) and POINT(1 3.1) are not. Note that
the geometry types have to match for them to be considered equal. 
ST_ERASE(geom1, geom2) 
Returns the result of erasing a portion of geom1 equal to the size of geom2 . 
ST_EXPAND(geom, units) 
Returns the bounding box expanded in all directions by the given units of the given geom . The
expansion can also be defined for separate directions by providing separate parameters for each
direction, e.g., ST_EXPAND(geom, unitsx, unitsy, unitsz, unitsm) . 
ST_EXPANDBYRATE(geom, rate) 
Returns the bounding box expanded by a given rate (a ratio of width and height) for the given
geometry geom . The rate must be between 0 and 1. 
ST_EXTERIORRING(geom) 
Returns a LINESTRING representing the exterior ring of the given POLYGON geom 
ST_FORCE2D(geom) 
Returns the 2dimensional version (e.g., X and Y coordinates) of geom , the provided geometry or
set of geometries (e.g., via GEOMETRYCOLLECTION or WKT column name). 
ST_FORCE3D(geom[, z]) 
Returns the 3dimensional version (e.g., X, Y, and Z coordinates) of Note If a WKT column is provided for 
ST_GENERATEPOINTS(geom, num) 
Creates a MULTIPOINT containing a number num of randomly generated points within the boundary of
geom . 
ST_GEOHASH(geom, precision) 
Returns a hash string representation of the given geometry Note The value returned will not be a geohash of the exact geometry but a geohash of the centroid of the given geometry 
ST_GEOMETRYN(geom, index) 
Returns the index geometry back from the given geom geometry. The index starts from 1 to
the number of geometry in geom . 
ST_GEOMETRYTYPE(geom) 
Returns the type of geometry from the given geom . 
ST_GEOMETRYTYPEID(geom) 
Returns the type ID of from

ST_GEOMFROMGEOHASH(geohash, precision) 
Returns a POLYGON boundary box using the given geohash with a precision set by the integer
precision . If precision is specified, the function will use as many characters in the hash
equal to precision to create the geometry. If no precision is specified, the full length of
the geohash is used. 
ST_GEOMFROMTEXT(wkt) 
Returns a geometry from the given WellKnown text representation wkt . Note that this function is
only compatible with constants 
ST_HEXGRID(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax, cell_side[, limit]) 
Creates a MULTIPOLYGON containing a grid of hexagons between given minimum and maximum points of a
bounding box. The minimum point cannot be greater than or equal to the maximum point. The size (in
meters) of the individual hexagons' sides is determined by
If the custom limit request specifies more cells (based on the bounding box and the 
ST_INTERIORRINGN(geom, n) 
Returns the n th interior LINESTRING ring of the POLYGON geom . If geom is not a POLYGON
or the given n is out of range, a null is returned. The index begins at 1 
ST_INTERSECTION(geom1, geom2) 
Returns the shared portion between given geometries geom1 and geom2 
ST_INTERSECTS(geom1, geom2) 
Returns 1 (true) if the given geometries, geom1 and geom2 , intersect in 2D 
ST_ISCLOSED(geom) 
Returns 1 (true) if the given geometry's (geom ) start and end points coincide 
ST_ISCOLLECTION(geom) 
Returns 1 (true) if geom is a collection, e.g., GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, MULTIPOINT,
MULTILINESTRING, etc. 
ST_ISEMPTY(geom) 
Returns 1 (true) if geom is empty 
ST_ISRING(geom) 
Returns 1 (true) if LINESTRING geom is both closed (per ST_ISCLOSED ) and "simple"
(per ST_ISSIMPLE ). Returns 0 if geom is not a LINESTRING 
ST_ISSIMPLE(geom) 
Returns 1 (true) if geom has no anomalous geometric points, e.g., selfintersection or
selftangency 
ST_ISVALID(geom) 
Returns 1 (true) if geom (typically a [MULTI]POLYGON) is well formed. A POLYGON is valid if
its rings do not cross and its boundary intersects only at POINTs (not along a line). The POLYGON must
also not have dangling LINESTRINGs. A MULTIPOLYGON is valid if all of its elements are also valid and
the interior rings of those elements do not intersect. Each element's boundaries may touch but only
at POINTs (not along a line) 
ST_LENGTH(geom[, solution]) 
Returns the length of the geometry if it is a LINESTRING or MULTILINESTRING. Returns

ST_LINEFROMMULTIPOINT(geom) 
Creates a LINESTRING from geom if it is a MULTIPOINT. Returns null if geom is not a
MULTIPOINT 
ST_LINEINTERPOLATEPOINT(geom, fraction) 
Returns a POINT that represents the specified fraction of the LINESTRING geom . If geom is
either empty or not a LINESTRING, null is returned 
ST_LINELOCATEPOINT(linestring, point) 
Returns the location of the closest point in the given linestring to the given point as a
value between 0 and 1 . The return value is a fraction of the total linestring length. 
ST_LINEMERGE(geom) 
Returns a LINESTRING or MULTILINESTRING from a given geom . If geom is a MULTILINESTRING
comprising LINESTRINGs with shared endpoints, a contiguous LINESTRING is returned. If geom is a
LINESTRING or a MULTILINESTRING comprising LINESTRINGS without shared endpoints, geom is returned
If geom is an empty (MULTI)LINESTRING or a (MULTI)POINT or (MULTI)POLYGON, an empty
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION is returned. 
ST_LINESUBSTRING(geom, start_fraction, end_fraction) 
Returns the fraction of a given geom LINESTRING where start_fraction and end_fraction are
between 0 and 1 . For example, given LINESTRING(1 1, 2 2, 3 3) a start_fraction of
0 and an end_fraction of 0.25 would yield the first quarter of the given LINESTRING, or
LINESTRING(1 1, 1.5 1.5) . Returns null if start_fraction is greater than
end_fraction . Returns null if input geometry is (MULTI)POINT, MULTILINESTRING, or
(MULTI)POLYGON. Returns null if start_fraction and/or end_fraction are less than 0 or
more than 1 . 
ST_LONGESTLINE(geom1, geom2[, solution]) 
Returns the LINESTRING that represents the longest line of points between the two geometries. If
multiple longest lines are found, only the first line found is returned. If

ST_MAKEENVELOPE(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax) 
Creates a rectangular POLYGON from the given min and max parameters 
ST_MAKELINE(geom[, geom2]) 
Creates a LINESTRING from Note This function can be rather costly in terms of performance 
ST_MAKEPOINT(x, y) 
Creates a POINT at the given coordinate Note This function can be rather costly in terms of performance 
ST_MAKEPOLYGON(geom) 
Creates a POLYGON from Note This function can be rather costly in terms of performance 
ST_MAKETRIANGLE2D(x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3) 
Creates a closed 2D POLYGON with three vertices 
ST_MAKETRIANGLE3D(x1, y1, z1, x2, y2, z2,
x3, y3, z3) 
Creates a closed 3D POLYGON with three vertices 
ST_MAXDISTANCE(geom1, geom2[, solution]) 
Returns the maximum distance between the given

ST_MAXX(geom) 
Returns the maximum x coordinate of a bounding box for the given geom geometry. This function
works for 2D and 3D geometries. 
ST_MAXY(geom) 
Returns the maximum y coordinate of a bounding box for the given geom geometry. This function
works for 2D and 3D geometries. 
ST_MAXZ(geom) 
Returns the maximum z coordinate of a bounding box for the given geom geometry. This function
works for 2D and 3D geometries. 
ST_MINX(geom) 
Returns the minimum x coordinate of a bounding box for the given geom geometry. This function
works for 2D and 3D geometries. 
ST_MINY(geom) 
Returns the minimum y coordinate of a bounding box for the given geom geometry. This function
works for 2D and 3D geometries. 
ST_MINZ(geom) 
Returns the minimum z coordinate of a bounding box for the given geom geometry. This function
works for 2D and 3D geometries. 
ST_MULTI(geom) 
Returns geom as a MULTI geometry, e.g., a POINT would return a MULTIPOINT. 
ST_MULTIPLERINGBUFFERS(geom, distance, outside) 
Creates multiple buffers at specified

ST_NEAR(geom1, geom2) 
Returns the portion of geom2 that is closest to geom1 . If geom2 is a singular geometry
object (e.g., POINT, LINESTRING, POLYGON), geom2 will be returned. If geom2 a multigeometry,
e.g., MULTIPOINT, MULTILINESTRING, etc., the nearest singular geometry in geom2 will be
returned. 
ST_NORMALIZE(geom) 
Returns geom in its normalized (canonical) form, which may rearrange the points in lexicographical
order. 
ST_NPOINTS(geom) 
Returns the number of points (vertices) in geom . 
ST_NUMGEOMETRIES(geom) 
If geom is a collection or MULTI geometry, returns the number of geometries. If geom is a
single geometry, returns 1. 
ST_NUMINTERIORRINGS(geom) 
Returns the number of interior rings if geom is a POLYGON. Returns null if geom is
anything else. 
ST_NUMPOINTS(geom) 
Returns the number of points in the geom LINESTRING. Returns null if geom is not a
LINESTRING. 
ST_OVERLAPS(geom1, geom2) 
Returns 1 (true) if given geometries geom1 and geom2 share space. If geom1 and/or
geom2 are a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, a 0 is returned regardless if the two geometries overlap 
ST_PARTITION(geom, threshold) 
Returns a MULTIPOLYGON representing the given geom partitioned into a number of POLYGONs with a
maximum number of vertices equal to the given threshold . Minimum value for threshold is
10 ; default value is 10000 . If geom is not a POLYGON or MULTIPOLYGON, geom is
returned. If the number of vertices in geom is less than the threshold , geom is returned. 
ST_PERIMETER(geom[, solution]) 
Returns the perimeter of the geometry if it is a POLYGON or MULTIPOLYGON. Returns

ST_POINT(x, y) 
Returns a POINT with the given x and y coordinates. 
ST_POINTFROMGEOHASH(geohash, precision) 
Returns a POINT using the given Note The POINT returned represents the center of the bounding box of the geohash 
ST_POINTGRID(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax, cell_side[, limit]) 
Creates a MULTIPOLYGON containing a squareshaped grid of points between given minimum and maximum
points of a bounding box. The minimum point cannot be greater than or equal to the maximum point. The
distance between the points (in meters) is determined by
If the custom limit request specifies more cells (based on the bounding box and the 
ST_POINTN(geom, n) 
Returns the n th point in LINESTRING geom . Negative values are valid, but note that they are
counted backwards from the end of geom . A null is returned if geom is not a LINESTRING. 
ST_POINTS(geom) 
Returns a MULTIPOINT containing all of the coordinates of geom . 
ST_PROJECT(geom, distance, azimuth) 
Returns a POINT projected from a start point geom along a geodesic calculated using distance
and azimuth . If geom is not a POINT, null is returned. 
ST_REMOVEPOINT(geom, offset) 
Remove a point from LINESTRING geom using offset to skip over POINTs in the LINESTRING. The
offset is 0based. 
ST_REMOVEREPEATEDPOINTS(geom, tolerance) 
Removes points from geom if the point's vertices are greater than or equal to the tolerance
of the previous point in the geometry's list. If geom is not a MULTIPOINT, MULTILINESTRING, or a
MULTIPOLYGON, no points will be removed. 
ST_REVERSE(geom) 
Return the geometry with its coordinate order reversed. 
ST_SCALE(geom, x, y) 
Scales geom by multiplying its respective vertices by the given x and y values.
This function also supports scaling geom using another geometry object, e.g.,
ST_SCALE('POINT(3 4)', 'POINT(5 6)') would return POINT(15 24) . If specifying x and y
for scale, note that the default value is 0 , e.g., ST_SCALE('POINT(1 3)', 4)
would return POINT(4 0) . 
ST_SEGMENTIZE(geom, max_segment_length[, solution]) 
Returns the given

ST_SETPOINT(geom1, position, geom2) 
Replace a point of LINESTRING geom1 with POINT geom2 at position (base 0). Negative
values are valid, but note that they are counted backwards from the end of geom . 
ST_SHAREDPATH(geom1, geom2) 
Returns a collection containing paths shared by geom1 and geom2 . 
ST_SHORTESTLINE(geom1, geom2) 
Returns the 2D LINESTRING that represents the shortest line of points between the two geometries. If
multiple shortest lines are found, only the first line found is returned. If geom1 or geom2
is empty, null is returned 
ST_SIMPLIFY(geom, tolerance) 
Returns a simplified version of the given Note The 
ST_SIMPLIFYPRESERVETOPOLOGY(geom, tolerance) 
Returns a simplified version of the given Note The 
ST_SNAP(geom1, geom2, tolerance) 
Snaps geom1 to geom2 within the given tolerance . If the tolerance causes geom1
to not snap, the geometries will be returned unchanged. 
ST_SPLIT(geom1, geom2) 
Returns a collection of geometries resulting from the split between geom1 and geom2
geometries. 
ST_SQUAREGRID(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax, cell_side[, limit]) 
Creates a MULTIPOLYGON containing a grid of squares between given minimum and maximum points of a
bounding box. The minimum point cannot be greater than or equal to the maximum point. The size (in
meters) of the individual squares' sides is determined by
If the custom limit request specifies more cells (based on the bounding box and the 
ST_STARTPOINT(geom) 
Returns the first point of LINESTRING geom as a POINT. Returns null if geom is not a
LINESTRING. 
ST_SYMDIFFERENCE(geom1, geom2) 
Returns a geometry that represents the portions of geom1 and geom2 geometries that do not
intersect. 
ST_TOUCHES(geom1, geom2) 
Returns 1 (true) if the given geometries, geom1 and geom2 , have at least one point in
common but their interiors do not intersect. If geom1 and/or geom2 are a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION,
a 0 is returned regardless if the two geometries touch 
ST_TRANSLATE(geom, deltax, deltay[, deltaz]) 
Translate geom by given offsets deltax and deltay . A zcoordinate offset can be applied
using deltaz . 
ST_TRIANGLEGRID(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax, cell_side[, limit]) 
Creates a MULTIPOLYGON containing a grid of triangles between given minimum and maximum points of a
bounding box. The minimum point cannot be greater than or equal to the maximum point. The size (in
meters) of the individual triangles' sides is determined by
If the custom limit request specifies more cells (based on the bounding box and the 
ST_UNION(geom1, geom2) 
Returns a geometry that represents the point set union of the two given geometries, geom1 and
geom2 . 
ST_UNIONCOLLECTION(geom) 
Returns a geometry that represents the point set union of a single given geometry geom . 
ST_UPDATE(geom1, geom2) 
Returns a geometry that is geom1 geometry updated by geom2 geometry 
ST_VORONOIPOLYGONS(geom, tolerance) 
Returns a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION containing Voronoi polygons (regions consisting of points closer to
a vertex in geom than any other vertices in geom ) calculated from the vertices in geom
and the given tolerance . The tolerance determines the distance at which points will be
considered the same. An empty GEOMETRYCOLLECTION is returned if geom is an empty geometry, a
single POINT, or a LINESTRING or POLYGON composed of equivalent vertices (e.g.,
POLYGON((0 0, 0 0, 0 0, 0 0)) , LINESTRING(0 0, 0 0) ). 
ST_WITHIN(geom1, geom2) 
Returns 1 (true) if the geom1 geometry is inside the geom2 geometry. Note that as long as
at least one point is inside of geom2 , geom1 is considered within geom2 even if the rest
of the geom1 lies along the boundary of geom2 
ST_WKTTOWKB(geom) 
Returns the binary form (WKB) of a Note This function can only be used in queries against a single table. 
ST_X(geom) 
Returns the X coordinate of the POINT geom ; if the coordinate is not available, null is
returned. geom must be a POINT. 
ST_XMAX(geom) 
Alias for ST_MAXX() 
ST_XMIN(geom) 
Alias for ST_MINX() 
ST_Y(geom) 
Returns the Y coordinate of the POINT geom ; if the coordinate is not available, null is
returned. geom must be a POINT. 
ST_YMAX(geom) 
Alias for ST_MAXY() 
ST_YMIN(geom) 
Alias for ST_MINY() 
ST_ZMAX(geom) 
Alias for ST_MAXZ() 
ST_ZMIN(geom) 
Alias for ST_MINZ() 
Function  Description 

ST_AGGREGATE_COLLECT(geom) 
Alias for ST_COLLECT_AGGREGATE() 
ST_AGGREGATE_INTERSECTION(geom) 
Alias for ST_INTERSECTION_AGGREGATE() 
ST_COLLECT_AGGREGATE(geom) 
Returns a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION comprising all geometries found in the geom set. Any MULTI* geometries will be
divided into separate singular geometries, e.g., MULTIPOINT((0 0), (1 1)) would be divided into POINT(0 0) and
POINT(1 1) in the results; the same is true for elements of a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION found in geom , where a
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION within the provided geom set will also be parsed, effectively flattening it and adding
the individual geometries to the resulting GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. Any empty geometries in geom are ignored
even if they are part of a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. Any duplicate WKTs will be retained. 
ST_DISSOLVE(geom) 
Dissolves all geometries within a given set into a single geometry. Note that the resulting single geometry can still be a group of noncontiguous geometries but represented as a single group, e.g., a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. Best performance when used in conjunction with adjacent geometries 
ST_DISSOLVEOVERLAPPING(geom) 
Dissolves all geometries within a given set into a single geometry. Note that the resulting single geometry can still be a group of noncontiguous geometries but represented as a single group, e.g., a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. Best performance when used in conjunction with overlapping geometries 
ST_INTERSECTION_AGGREGATE(geom) 
Returns a POLYGON or MULTIPOLYGON comprising the shared portion between all geometries found in the geom
set. Returns an empty GEOMETRYCOLLECTION if there is no shared portion between all geometries. Functionally
equivalent to ST_INTERSECTION(ST_INTERSECTION(ST_INTERSECTION(geom1, geom2), geom3), ... geomN) . 
ST_LINESTRINGFROMORDEREDPOINTS(x, y, t) 
Returns a LINESTRING that represents a "track" of the given points (x , y ) ordered by the given sort
column t (e.g., a timestamp or sequence number). If any of the values in the specified columns are
null , the null "point" will be left out of the resulting LINESTRING. If there's only one nonnull "point"
in the source table, a POINT is returned. If there are no nonnull "points" in the source table, a null is
returned 
ST_LINESTRINGFROMORDEREDPOINTS3D(x, y, z, t) 
Returns a LINESTRING that represents a "track" of the given 3D points (x , y , z ) ordered by the
given sort column t (e.g., a timestamp or sequence number). If any of the values in the specified columns
are null , the null "point" will be left out of the resulting LINESTRING. If there's only one nonnull
"point" in the source table, a POINT is returned. If there are no nonnull "points" in the source table, a
null is returned 
ST_POLYGONIZE(geom) 
Returns a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION containing POLYGONs comprising the provided (MULTI)LINESTRING(s). (MULTI)POINT and (MULTI)POLYGON geometries are ignored when calculating the resulting GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. If a valid POLYGON cannot be constructed from the provided (MULTI)LINESTRING(s), an empty GEOMETRYCOLLECTION will be returned. 
Function  Description  

ABS(expr) 
Calculates the absolute value of expr 

ACOS(expr) 
Returns the inverse cosine (arccosine) of expr as a double 

ACOSF(expr) 
Returns the inverse cosine (arccosine) of expr as a float 

ACOSH(expr) 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of expr as a double 

ACOSHF(expr) 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of expr as a float 

ASIN(expr) 
Returns the inverse sine (arcsine) of expr as a double 

ASINF(expr) 
Returns the inverse sine (arcsine) of expr as a float 

ASINH(expr) 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of expr as a double 

ASINHF(expr) 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of expr as a float 

ATAN(expr) 
Returns the inverse tangent (arctangent) of expr as a
double 

ATANF(expr) 
Returns the inverse tangent (arctangent) of expr as a
float 

ATANH(expr) 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of expr as a double 

ATANHF(expr) 
Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of expr as a float 

ATAN2(x, y) 
Returns the inverse tangent (arctangent) using two arguments as a double  
ATAN2F(x, y) 
Returns the inverse tangent (arctangent) using two arguments as a float  
ATN2(x, y) 
Alias for ATAN2 

ATN2F(x, y) 
Alias for ATAN2F 

CBRT(expr) 
Returns the cube root of expr as a double 

CBRTF(expr) 
Returns the cube root of expr as a float 

CEIL(expr) 
Alias for CEILING 

CEILING(expr) 
Rounds expr up to the next highest integer 

COS(expr) 
Returns the cosine of expr as a double 

COSF(expr) 
Returns the cosine of expr as a float 

COSH(expr) 
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of expr as a double 

COSHF(expr) 
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of expr as a float 

COT(expr) 
Returns the cotangent of expr as a double 

COTF(expr) 
Returns the cotangent of expr as a float 

DEGREES(expr) 
Returns the conversion of expr (in radians) to degrees as a
double 

DEGREESF(expr) 
Returns the conversion of expr (in radians) to degrees as a
float 

DIVZ(a, b, c) 
Returns the quotient a / b unless b == 0 , in which case
it returns c 

EXP(expr) 
Returns e to the power of expr as a double 

EXPF(expr) 
Returns e to the power of expr as a float 

FLOOR(expr) 
Rounds expr down to the next lowest integer 

GREATER(expr_a, expr_b) 
Returns whichever of expr_a and expr_b has the larger
value, based on typed comparison 

HYPOT(x, y) 
Returns the hypotenuse of x and y as a double 

HYPOTF(x, y) 
Returns the hypotenuse of x and y as a float 

ISNAN(expr) 
Returns 1 (true) if expr is not a number by IEEE
standard; otherwise, returns 0 (false) 

IS_NAN(expr) 
Alias for ISNAN 

ISINFINITY(expr) 
Returns 1 (true) if expr is infinity by IEEE standard;
otherwise, returns 0 (false) 

IS_INFINITY(expr) 
Alias for ISINFINITY 

LDEXP(x, exp) 
Returns the value of x * 2^{exp} as a double 

LDEXPF(x, exp) 
Returns the value of x * 2^{exp} as a float 

LESSER(expr_a, expr_b) 
Returns whichever of expr_a and expr_b has the smaller
value, based on typed comparison 

LN(expr) 
Returns the natural logarithm of expr as a double 

LNF(expr) 
Returns the natural logarithm of expr as a float 

LOG(expr) 
Alias for LN 

LOGF(expr) 
Alias for LNF 

LOG1P(expr) 
Returns the natural logarithm of one plus expr as a double 

LOG1PF(expr) 
Returns the natural logarithm of one plus expr as a float 

LOG2(expr) 
Returns the binary (base2) logarithm of expr as a double 

LOG2F(expr) 
Returns the binary (base2) logarithm of expr as a float 

LOG10(expr) 
Returns the base10 logarithm of expr as a double 

LOG10F(expr) 
Returns the base10 logarithm of expr as a float 

MAX_CONSECUTIVE_BITS(expr) 
Calculates the length of the longest series of consecutive 1
bits in the integer expr 

MOD(dividend, divisor) 
Calculates the remainder after integer division of dividend
by divisor 

PI() 
Returns the value of pi  
POW(base, exponent) 
Alias for POWER 

POWF(base, exponent) 
Alias for POWERF 

POWER(base, exponent) 
Returns base raised to the power of exponent as a
double 

POWERF(base, exponent) 
Returns base raised to the power of exponent as a
float 

RADIANS(expr) 
Returns the conversion of expr (in degrees) to radians as a
double 

RADIANSF(expr) 
Returns the conversion of expr (in degrees) to radians as a
float 

RAND() 
Returns a random floatingpoint value.  
ROUND(expr, scale) 
Rounds


SIGN(expr) 
Determines whether a number is positive, negative, or zero; returns one of the following three values:


SIN(expr) 
Returns the sine of expr as a double 

SINF(expr) 
Returns the sine of expr as a float 

SINH(expr) 
Returns the hyperbolic sine of expr as a double 

SINHF(expr) 
Returns the hyperbolic sine of expr as a float 

SQRT(expr) 
Returns the square root of expr as a double 

SQRTF(expr) 
Returns the square root of expr as a float 

TAN(expr) 
Returns the tangent of expr as a double 

TANF(expr) 
Returns the tangent of expr as a float 

TANH(expr) 
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of expr as a double 

TANHF(expr) 
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of expr as a float 

TRUNCATE(expr, scale) 
Rounds

Important
Be mindful that no error is thrown when Kinetica tries to convert different data type in the Null functions below, so if the output is unexpected, it may be that the types used aren't of the same type.
Function  Description 

IS_NULL(expr) 
Returns 1 (true) if expr is null; otherwise, returns 0
(false) 
NULLIF(expr_a, expr_b) 
Returns null if expr_a equals expr_b ; otherwise, returns the
value of expr_a . Both expressions should be of the same convertible
data type 
NVL(expr_a, expr_b) 
Returns expr_a if it is not null; otherwise, returns expr_b .
Both expressions should be of the same convertible data type 
NVL2(expr, value_if_not_null, value_if_null) 
Evaluates expr : if expr does not return a null,
value_if_not_null is returned. If expr does return a null,
value_if_null is returned. Both value_if_not_null and
value_if_null should be of the same data type as expr or
implicitly convertible 
REMOVE_NULLABLE(expr) 
Alias for ZEROIFNULL 
ZEROIFNULL(expr) 
Replaces null values with appropriate values based on the column type (e.g., 0 if
numeric column, an empty string if charN column, etc.). Also removes the nullable
column property if used to calculate a derived column. 
Important
These functions will only work with
fixedwidth string fields (char1
 char256
).
Function  Description  

ASCII(expr) 
Returns the ASCII code for the first character in expr 

CHAR(expr) 
The character represented by the standard ASCII code expr in the
range [ 0  127 ] 

CONCAT(expr_a, expr_b) 
Performs a string concatenation of Note The resulting field size of any 

CONCAT_TRUNCATE(expr_a, expr_b) 
Returns the concatenation of Examples:


CONTAINS(match_expr, ref_expr) 
Returns 1 if ref_expr contains match_expr by
stringliteral comparison; otherwise, returns 0 

DIFFERENCE(expr_a, expr_b) 
Returns a value between 0 and 4 that represents the difference
between the sounds of expr_a and expr_b based on the
SOUNDEX() value of the stringsa value of 4 is the best
possible sound match 

EDIT_DISTANCE(expr_a, expr_b) 
Returns the Levenshtein edit distance between expr_a and
expr_b ; the lower the the value, the more similar the two strings
are 

ENDS_WITH(match_expr, ref_expr) 
Returns 1 if ref_expr ends with match_expr by
stringliteral comparison; otherwise, returns 0 

INITCAP(expr) 
Returns expr with the first letter of each word in uppercase 

IPV4_PART(expr, part_num) 
Returns the octet of the IP address given in Examples:


IS_IPV4(expr) 
Returns 1 if expr is an IPV4 address; returns 0 otherwise 

LCASE(expr) 
Converts expr to lowercase 

LEFT(expr, num_chars) 
Returns the leftmost num_chars characters from expr 

LENGTH(expr) 
Returns the number of characters in expr 

LIKE(ref_expr, match_expr) 
Returns whether


LOCATE(match_expr, ref_expr[, start_pos]) 
Returns the starting position of the first match of match_expr in
ref_expr , starting from position 1 or start_pos (if specified) 

LOWER(expr) 
Alias for LCASE 

LPAD(base_expr, length, pad_expr) 
Left pads the given Examples:


LTRIM(expr) 
Removes whitespace from the left side of expr 

POSITION(match_expr, ref_expr[, start_pos]) 
Alias for LOCATE 

REPLACE(ref_expr, match_expr, repl_expr) 
Replaces every occurrence of match_expr in ref_expr with
repl_expr 

REVERSE(expr) 
Returns Examples:


RIGHT(expr, num_chars) 
Returns the rightmost num_chars characters from expr 

RPAD(base_expr, length, pad_expr) 
Right pads the given Examples:


RTRIM(expr) 
Removes whitespace from the right side of expr 

SOUNDEX(expr) 
Returns a soundex value from Note: This is the algorithm used by most programming languages 

SPACE(n) 
Returns a string consisting of n space characters. The value of
n can only be within the range of 0256. 

SPLIT(expr, delim, group_num) 
Splits Examples:


STARTS_WITH(match_expr, ref_expr) 
Returns 1 if ref_expr starts with match_expr by
stringliteral comparison; otherwise, returns 0 

STRCMP(expr_a, expr_b) 
Compares


SUBSTR(expr, start_pos, num_chars) 
Alias for SUBSTRING 

SUBSTRING(expr, start_pos, num_chars) 
Returns num_chars characters from the expr , starting at the
1based start_pos 

TRIM(expr) 
Removes whitespace from both sides of expr 

UCASE(expr) 
Converts expr to uppercase 

UPPER(expr) 
Alias for UCASE 
Function  Description  

CURRENT_USER() 
Alias for USER 

HASH(column[, seed]) 
Returns a nonnegative integer representing an obfuscated version
of column , using the given seed ; default seed is 0 

or

Returns whether the current user (or the given


MASK(expr, start, length[, char]) 
Masks


OBFUSCATE(column[, seed]) 
Alias for HASH 

SHA256(expr) 
Returns the hex digits of the SHA256 hash of the given value
expr as a char64 string. 

SYSTEM_USER() 
Alias for USER 

USER() 
Returns the username of the current user 
Many of the functions above accept expressions as inputs in place of column names for selecting data from tables e.g. /aggregate/minmax. Given below are some examples of column expressions:
(x + y)
(2 * col1) + col2
Data can be filtered with the use of filter expressions within many endpoints;
e.g., /filter. These expressions may contain
column expressions as well as tests for equality/inequality for selecting
records from the database. A filter expression cannot contain
aggregation functions and should evaluate to a logical value
( true or false ). When the result of an expression evaluation is a
numerical value, the result is converted to a logical value as follows: 0
is considered false and any other value is considered as true. Some
examples of filter expressions are given below:
(x > y)
(a != b) or (c = d)
(timestamp > 1456749296789) and (x <= 10.0)
ABS(timestamp  1456749296789) < 60 * 60 * 1000
QUARTER(timestamp) = 1 and MOD(YEAR(timestamp), 4) = 0
msg_id == 'MSGID1'
(x = 5) and y in (10,20,30)
Some endpoints accept aggregation expressions as inputs for selecting data from tables, e.g., /aggregate/groupby. Such expressions can only contain aggregation functions and nonnested functions of aggregation functions.
Function  Description 

ARG_MIN(agg_expr, ret_expr) 
The value of ret_expr where agg_expr is the minimum value (e.g. ARG_MIN(cost, product_id) returns the product ID of the
lowest cost product) 
ARG_MAX(agg_expr, ret_expr) 
The value of ret_expr where agg_expr is the maximum value (e.g. ARG_MAX(cost, product_id) returns the product ID of the
highest cost product) 
AVG(expr) 
The average of values of expr 
CORR(expr1, expr2) 
Calculates the correlation coefficient of expr1 and expr2 
CORRELATION(expr1, expr2) 
Alias for CORR 
CORRCOEF(expr1, expr2) 
Alias for CORR 
COUNT(expr) 
Count of nonnull values of expr ; use * to count all values within an aggregation group or over an entire table 
COUNT_DISTINCT(expr) 
Count of the distinct values of expr 
COV(expr1, expr2) 
Alias for COVAR_POP 
COVAR(expr1, expr2) 
Alias for COVAR_POP 
COVARIANCE(expr1, expr2) 
Alias for COVAR_POP 
COVAR_POP(expr1, expr2) 
Calculates the population covariance of expr1 and expr2 
COVAR_SAMP(expr1, expr2) 
Calculates the sample covariance of expr1 and expr2 
GROUPING(expr) 
Used primarily with Rollup, Cube, and Grouping Sets, to distinguish the source of
null values in an aggregated result set, returns whether For example, in a 
KURT(expr) 
Alias for KURTOSIS_POP 
KURTOSIS(expr) 
Alias for KURTOSIS_POP 
KURTOSIS_POP(expr) 
Calculate the population kurtosis of expr 
KURTOSIS_SAMP(expr) 
Calculate the sample kurtosis of expr 
KURT_POP(expr) 
Alias for KURTOSIS_POP 
KURT_SAMP(expr) 
Alias for KURTOSIS_SAMP 
MAX(expr) 
The maximum of values of expr 
MEAN(expr) 
Alias for AVG 
MIN(expr) 
The minimum of values of expr 
PRODUCT(expr) 
The product of values of expr 
SKEW(expr) 
Alias for SKEWNESS_POP 
SKEWNESS(expr) 
Alias for SKEWNESS_POP 
SKEWNESS_POP(expr) 
Calculate the population skew of expr 
SKEWNESS_SAMP(expr) 
Calculate the sample skew of expr 
SKEW_POP(expr) 
Alias for SKEWNESS_POP 
SKEW_SAMP(expr) 
Alias for SKEWNESS_SAMP 
STDDEV(expr) 
The population standard deviation over values of expr (i.e. the denominator is N) 
STDDEV_POP(expr) 
The population standard deviation over values of expr (i.e. the denominator is N) 
STDDEV_SAMP(expr) 
The sample standard deviation over values of expr (i.e. the denominator is N1) 
SUM(expr) 
The sum of values of expr 
VAR(expr) 
The population variance over values of expr (i.e. the denominator is N) 
VAR_POP(expr) 
The population variance over values of expr (i.e. the denominator is N) 
VAR_SAMP(expr) 
The sample variance over values of expr (i.e. the denominator is N1) 
Some examples of aggregate expressions:
SUM(sale_price)  SUM(base_price)
MAX(CEIL(x))  MIN(FLOOR(x))
AVG(ABS(z  100.0))